Course evaluation scheme
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Inclusion and human rights

  1. Disabilities: Critical content is accessible to all participants. Provide accessible alternatives for inaccessible content (e.g. transcripts of video). Mark non-critical inaccessible content as optional.
  2. Access: All content is viewable in all target geographies.
  3. Privacy and safety: Participants are not required to disclose personal information. Participants are aware of who can view their activity and under what terms. Participants do not risk themselves or others.
  4. Gender and cultural sensitivity: language and media are balanced and respectful of persons of all genders, ethnical and cultural backgrounds.

Visible learning, Visible teaching, Constructive alignment

John Biggs coined the term “constructive alignment”. John Hattie introduced the concept of “visible learning” and “visible teaching”. Some

  1. Purpose: the course, and every activity within it, has clearly defined objectives.

  2. Visibility of purpose: the objectives of the course and every activity are understood by teachers and the learners.

  3. Assessment alignment: assessment instruments provide accurate and reliable indicators of the extent to which the objectives have been achieved.

  4. Assessment visibility: the alignment of assessment instruments to objectives is understood by teachers and learners.

  5. Activity alignment: the activities are designed to promote the objectives, and their completion by learners leads to high scores in the associated assessments.

  6. Activity visibility: the alignment of activities to objectives and assessment is understood by learners and teachers.

  7. Formative assessment: feedback is timely and constructive. It is available when learners need it. Feedback not only tells learners where they are - it tells them where they need to go.

  8. Formative evaluation: teachers have timely and constructive indicators of the effectiveness of their teaching activities and assessments.

  9. Balance: the effort required for each activity is proportional to its benefits, and reasonable spread out across the course.

  10. Visible plan: the effort required by the various activities, and the spread of effort throughout the course, is understood by learners and teachers.

Margaryan, Bianco & Littlejohn’s 10 principles of instruction:

  1. Problem-centred: Learning is promoted when learners acquire skill in the context of real-world problems. Instructional effectiveness of a course will be enhanced if the learning activities in the course give learners an opportunity to solve real-world problems, working through a progression of interrelated tasks, from the least difficult to the most difficult, that reflect the complexity of real-world settings.

  2. Activation: Learning is promoted when learners activate existing knowledge and skill as a foundation for new skill. Instructional effectiveness of a course will increase if the course includes learning activities that help learners to recall and describe their relevant previous experiences, and to relate and apply these to what they will learn in the course. Activation also requires learning activities that stimulate the development of the mental models and schemes that can help learners to incorporate the new knowledge or skill into their existing knowledge.

  3. Demonstration: Learning is promoted when learners observe a demonstration of the skill to be learned. Effectiveness of a course is enhanced, firstly, when learners are shown examples of both poor and good practices; secondly, when the demonstration is consistent with the type of knowledge or skill being taught; and, thirdly, when learners are guided to relate general information or an organising structure to specific instances of the knowledge or skill being taught.

  4. Application: Learning is promoted when learners apply their newly acquired skill to solve problems. Applying knowledge to a single problem is insufficient for learning and that a course must provide multiple opportunities for learners to apply their new knowledge or skill to a wide range of real-world problems.

  5. Integration: Learning is promoted when learners reflect on, discuss, and defend their newly acquired skill. Effectiveness of a course is enhanced when, firstly, learners are provided with opportunities to reflect on what they have learned in order to revise, synthesise, recombine and modify their new knowledge or skills; and, secondly, when learners are required to demonstrate and defend their new knowledge or skill to peers and others.

  6. Collective knowledge: Learning is promoted when learners contribute to the collective knowledge.

  7. Collaboration: Learning is promoted when learners collaborate with others.

  8. Differentiation: Learning is promoted when different learners are provided with different avenues of learning, according to their need.

  9. Authentic resources: Learning is promoted when learning resources are drawn from real-world settings.

  10. Feedback: Learning is promoted when learners are given expert feedback on their performance.



Biggs, J. and Tang C. (2011): Teaching for Quality Learning at University, (McGraw-Hill and Open University Press, Maidenhead)

Biggs, J. (2003): Aligning Teaching and Assessment to Curriculum Objectives, (Imaginative Curriculum Project, LTSN Generic Centre)

Hattie, J. (2009), Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement , Routledge.

Margaryan, A.; Bianco, M. & Littlejohn, A. (2015), 'Instructional quality of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)',Computers & Education 80 , 77-83


Creative Commons License This work by Yishay Mor is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

Author(s): Barbara, Cristina, Emilie, Kieran Clifford - AI Ireland, Mazen, Yishay Mor, RobertFellner
Published at: 19 Jun 2015 10:04 GMT
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